Key Performance Factors in Endurance SportsTzanetakis Giannis
The following presentation shows the basic parameters that affect performance and the basic physiological responses of the body to training stimuli and beyond.
|1.Somatotype||1. 2nd lactate threshold or 2nd respiratory threshold or anaerobic threshold|
|2.Distribution of muscle fibres||2.High VO2max and MAS (Maximum Aerobic Speed)|
|A) “Glycolytic” *1||3. Glycogen stores/fat use|
|B) “Oxido- glycolytic” *1||4. Energy economy|
|C) “Oxidative” * 1||5. Strength and resistance to prolonged repetitive eccentric contraction (in activities where this is present e.g., running races)|
|6. Recovery (local and systemic)|
- 2nd lactate threshold or 2nd respiratory threshold or anaerobic threshold
Lactate is a product of anaerobic glucose metabolism and is used as fuel by the muscles, heart, liver, and kidneys. The misuse of the expression Lactic “acid” is due to the production of hydrogen ions from its breakdown, which limit the transmission of nerve impulses. impulses. They also inhibit Ca release and inactivate aerobic enzymes.
This is the reason for the reduced muscle contraction capacity.
2nd Lactate threshold is defined as a sharp increase in the Lactate accumulation curve (it used to be defined at 4mmol/liter of blood, but today it is not even approximate).
Above this effort intensity the body has less removal capacity than accumulation capacity. For this reason, we can also meet the term as the accumulation threshold. (OBLA – Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation)
2nd respiratory threshold is the respiratory gas deviation after isocapnic regulation.
Training to improve it causes::
- Increase in the number and size of mitochondria
- Increase in aerobic enzymes – their activity
- Increase in capillary density in the muscle cell
And it aims :
- An increase in velocity to an intensity corresponding to it and …
- as much as possible of VO 2 max (Maximum Oxygen Uptake and MAS (Maximum Aerobic Speed)
Achieved by :
- at a pace/speed equal to / or slightly less than the speed at the anaerobic threshold
- at a heart rate corresponding to that
- by measuring lactate values to match those of the ergometric lab test
- monitoring oxygen saturation in the working muscles by NIRS* 2
- Continuous (tempo) 20min – 60 min long interval (20min), or interval training with much shorter bouts at a specific intensity and in any case different from interval training aiming to improve VO 2 max. That is, it is possible to have two 10X3min workouts with 1:30min active recovery in between and the different intensity in each of them is aimed at different long term physiological responses.
The longer we stay in the specific training zone, the better.
There is also the option to improve with polarized training (there is almost no training between the two thresholds).
Note: The 1st lactate and respiratory threshold also plays an important role, but we will expand on this topic in another article.
2. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max)
VO2 max= Cardiac output x arteriovenous difference
Cardiac output = Stroke volume x heart rate
Maximum heart rate is genetically determined
Heart rate & hemoglobin levels improves with training
Determining factors – limiting factors
Good runner 60-65ml/kg/min
Improvement in VO2max is achieved by:
The most effective training intensity is at 95%-100% of VO2max but may be improved also at lower intensities.
Well trained runners can maintain this speed up to 8 min
Corresponds to 3000- 5000 meters running race pace
The more time in the zone the better
The most effective exercise duration is from 2- 8 min
From 800-1600m Running Intervals
2000m Running Intervals at this intensity is workout only for elite athletes and 5000-10000m runners
Time duration for active recovery from 50% – 90% of effort / 2 schools of thought
Improvement in VO2max does not necessarily mean a corresponding improvement in vVO2max /MAS (maximum aerobic speed)
3. Increase in fat use in energy expenditure and increase glycogen stores
Increase in the percentage of fat participation relative to other energy substrates (carbohydrates, proteins) across the range of intensities of endurance efforts.
Increase in the speed at which fat max occurs. That is, the maximum fat consumption per minute as an absolute value.
Energy intake during the endurance effort affects the rates of energy substrate use.
Increasing fat participation is therefore achieved by:
Increasing the total training volume
By Long runs, back – to – back Long runs, Bonk Runs, 2 workouts per day, running at low glycogen levels.
At specific times in the annual training plan and as determined by the coach, long runs with no, or minimal calorie/carbohydrate intake during the run, whenever the coach deems appropriate.
Warning !!! the recovery costs from very long, “long runs” are greater than the resulting benefit. (Major damage to myofibril contractile proteins due to prolonged eccentric contraction)
4. Exercise / running economy
It depends on:
- Exercise – running biomechanics
- Percentage of VO 2 max at each specific intensity of effort
- Greater involvement of fat compared to glycogen
- Mechanical hardness of the lower limbs
- Narrow pelvis, small foot, fast shoulder movement, and training age being the most important factor
It seems to improve with:
- Weight training
- Relaxation training
- Speed training
- Uphill Sprints training
- Long intervals
- Exhaustive training
- Total training volume over time
It depends on:
- Genetic factors
- Training plan structure
- Biological / training age
- Lifestyle (work, sleep, nutrition)
- Relaxation: reduces adrenaline, relaxes muscles,
- Gentle stretches
- Specific food consumption immediately after training
- Immersion and staying in a cold bath (Not recommended for every workout because exercise related inflammation triggers, to a certain extent, the body’s mid- to long-term adaptations to training stimuli.
- Compression clothes ?
6. Supplementary training
- Strength / resistance training – Weight training
- Dynamic exercises
- Cross training
- Yoga, balance, proprioception exercises
7. Footwear – sports shoes – equipment – race hydration – environmental conditions. altitude , temperature, humidity, wind.
*1The terms are scientifically outdated but more accessible to the non-specialized audience and give an idea of the metabolic function of different types of muscle fibers. In very particular and specific situations it is possible to modify the physiological function of one type to resemble that of another.
*2NIRS (Near Infrared Spectroscopy)